High-level synthesis HLSsometimes referred to as C synthesiselectronic system-level ESL synthesisalgorithmic synthesisor behavioral synthesisis an automated design process that interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior and creates digital hardware that implements that behavior. Early HLS explored a variety of input specification languages. The code is analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to transcompile into a register-transfer level RTL design in a hardware description language HDLwhich is in turn commonly synthesized to the gate level by the use of a logic synthesis tool.Australia: broadchurch season 2 to premiere on february 15th
The goal of HLS is to let hardware designers efficiently build and verify hardware, by giving them better control over optimization of their design architecture, and through the nature of allowing the designer to describe the design at a higher level of abstraction while the tool does the RTL implementation. Verification of the RTL is an important part of the process. Hardware can be designed at varying levels of abstraction. The commonly used levels of abstraction are gate levelregister-transfer level RTLand algorithmic level.
The designer typically develops the module functionality and the interconnect protocol. The high-level synthesis tools handle the micro-architecture and transform untimed or partially timed functional code into fully timed RTL implementations, automatically creating cycle-by-cycle detail for hardware implementation.
Early academic work extracted scheduling, allocation, and binding as the basic steps for high-level-synthesis. Scheduling partitions the algorithm in control steps that are used to define the states in the finite-state machine. Each control step contains one small section of the algorithm that can be performed in a single clock cycle in the hardware.
Allocation and binding maps the instructions and variables to the hardware components, multiplexers, registers and wires of the data path. The abstraction level used was partially timed clocked processes. Tools based on behavioral Verilog or VHDL were not widely adopted in part because neither languages nor the partially timed abstraction were well suited to modeling behavior at a high level. Inthere emerged a number of next generation commercial high-level synthesis products also called behavioral synthesis or algorithmic synthesis at the time which provided synthesis of circuits specified at C level to a register transfer level RTL specification.
This language shift, combined with other technical advances was a key enabler for successful industrial usage. High-level synthesis was primarily adopted in Japan and Europe in the early years. As of latethere was an emerging adoption in the United States. High-level synthesis typically also includes a bit-accurate executable specification as input, since to derive an efficient hardware implementation, additional information is needed on what is an acceptable Mean-Square Error or Bit-Error Rate etc.
For example, if the designer starts with an FIR filter written using the "double" floating type, before he or she can derive an efficient hardware implementation, they need to perform numerical refinement to arrive at a fixed-point implementation.
The refinement requires additional information on the level of quantization noise that can be tolerated, the valid input ranges etc.
This bit-accurate specification makes the high level synthesis source specification functionally complete. The high-level synthesis process consists of a number of activities. Various high-level synthesis tools perform these activities in different orders using different algorithms.
Some high-level synthesis tools combine some of these activities or perform them iteratively to converge on the desired solution. In general, an algorithm can be performed over many clock cycles with few hardware resources, or over fewer clock cycles using a larger number of ALUs, registers and memories. Correspondingly, from one algorithmic description, a variety of hardware microarchitectures can be generated by an HLS compiler according to the directives given to the tool.
This is the same trade off of execution speed for hardware complexity as seen when a given program is run on conventional processors of differing performance, yet all running at roughly the same clock frequency. Synthesis constraints for the architecture can automatically be applied based on the design analysis. This enables interface analysis and exploration of a full range of hardware interface options such as streaming, single- or dual-port RAM plus various handshaking mechanisms.
With interface synthesis the designer does not embed interface protocols in the source description. Examples might be: direct connection, one line, 2 line handshake, FIFO.You will write RTL code which avoids unintentional combinatorial logic and latches.
You will use SystemVerilog interface mechanism to simplify module connectivity. You will develop proper synthesis scripts to manage parameters in RTL code for reuse in RTL block level integration and gate-level simulation.
To benefit the most from the material presented in this workshop, students should have a good understanding of the Verilog language. Cloud Synopsys in the Cloud. Community Community Overview. Analog IP Data Converters.
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Professional Services Strategy and programs that address security before, during and after development. Fuzz Testing Defensics Test Suites. Product Education. Become a partner. Resources Events Webinars Newsletters Blogs. All Synopsys. Prerequisites To benefit the most from the material presented in this workshop, students should have a good understanding of the Verilog language.
Register Now eLearning Available.Most of the intelligence resides in optimization stage but modern synthesis tools apply many smart techniques while converting RTL description into gates in order to reduce number of gates in the design.
Information about cell characteristics include cell delay and area. There are three major quality metrics: area, time and power. Designer's quality metric for an IC is driven by specific application. Area: With shrinking system size ASIC should be able to accommodate maximum functionality in minimum area.
Designer can specify area constraint and synthesis tool will optimize for minimum area. Area can be optimized by having lesser number of cells and by replacing multiple cells with single cell that includes both functionality. Timing: Designer specifies maximum delay between primary input and primary output.
This is taken as maximum delay across any critical path. There are three types of critical paths:. Power: Development of hand-held devices has led to reduction of battery size and hence low power consuming systems. Low power consumption has become a big requirement for lot of designers. First step in synthesis process is to convert a given RTL into a finite state machine. Many transformations can be applied to finite state machine in order to reduce number of states.
Some of the common transformations applied to FSM are constant propagation, gate merging, dead code elimination, arithmetic merging. Next step is to generate hardware. There are broadly two types of optimizations : Technology independent optimizations and Technology dependent optimization Technology dependent optimizations are carried out once netlist has been mapped into technology cells provided by fabrication house.
Timing and area constraints are provided by the designer. Slack is defined as difference between the expected arrival time and actual arrival time of signal at a particular output port. Slack is calculated for input to output paths. The aim of timing optimization is to reduce slack on critical paths.
Restructuring: If arrival times of signals at various input gates are known, they can be re-arranged to obtain better timing delay. Buffer insertion to improve timing along critical path. Replacing cell with a cell of higher drive strength can improve delay along critical path. Pin assignment can be changed to match the late arriving input pin with pin having faster propagation delay to output. False path removal. Netlist may contain false paths which are not visible in hardware description.
It is important to remove these false paths in order to get accurate timing numbers and avoid wasting time in optimizing paths that are never sensitized. Certain timing optimizations might lead to area escalation. Area Reclamation algorithms try to reclaim area which does not affect timing on critical paths. Skip to main content. RTL Synthesis involves three major steps: Transition from RTL description into gates and flip-flops Optimization of logic, and Placement and routing of optimized netlist.Nissan pathfinder 01 a c fuse location full version
Figure 1: RTL to gate level netlist. Figure 2: area optimization 2. There are three types of critical paths: 2.In electronics, logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract specification of desired circuit behavior, typically at register transfer level RTLis turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gatestypically by a computer program called a synthesis tool.
Common examples of this process include synthesis of designs specified in hardware description languagesincluding VHDL and Verilog.
Logic synthesis is one aspect of electronic design automation. The roots of logic synthesis can be traced to the treatment of logic by George Boole toin what is now termed Boolean algebra. InClaude Shannon showed that the two-valued Boolean algebra can describe the operation of switching circuits.
In the early days, logic design involved manipulating the truth table representations as Karnaugh maps. The Karnaugh map-based minimization of logic is guided by a set of rules on how entries in the maps can be combined. A human designer can typically only work with Karnaugh maps containing up to four to six variables. The first step toward automation of logic minimization was the introduction of the Quine—McCluskey algorithm that could be implemented on a computer.
This exact minimization technique presented the notion of prime implicants and minimum cost covers that would become the cornerstone of two-level minimization. Nowadays, the much more efficient Espresso heuristic logic minimizer has become the standard tool for this operation.
The applications for logic synthesis lay primarily in digital computer design. The evolution from discrete logic components to programmable logic arrays PLAs hastened the need for efficient two-level minimization, since minimizing terms in a two-level representation reduces the area in a PLA. However, two-level logic circuits are of limited importance in a very-large-scale integration VLSI design; most designs use multiple levels of logic.
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As a matter of fact, almost any circuit representation in RTL or Behavioural Description is a multi-level representation. It used local transformations to simplify logic. Within a decade, the technology migrated to commercial logic synthesis products offered by electronic design automation companies.
Logic design is a step in the standard design cycle in which the functional design of an electronic circuit is converted into the representation which captures logic operationsarithmetic operationscontrol flowetc.
A common output of this step is RTL description. Logic design is commonly followed by the circuit design step.
SystemVerilog for RTL Design
In modern electronic design automation parts of the logical design may be automated using high-level synthesis tools based on the behavioral description of the circuit. Arithmetic operations are usually implemented with the use of logic operators. With a goal of increasing designer productivity, research efforts on the synthesis of circuits specified at the behavioral level have led to the emergence of commercial solutions in which are used for complex ASIC and FPGA design.
Typical practical implementations of a logic function utilize a multi-level network of logic elements.
Starting from an RTL description of a design, the synthesis tool constructs a corresponding multilevel Boolean network. Next, this network is optimized using several technology-independent techniques before technology-dependent optimizations are performed. The typical cost function during technology-independent optimizations is total literal count of the factored representation of the logic function which correlates quite well with circuit area.
Finally, technology-dependent optimization transforms the technology-independent circuit into a network of gates in a given technology. The simple cost estimates are replaced by more concrete, implementation-driven estimates during and after technology mapping. Mapping is constrained by factors such as the available gates logic functions in the technology library, the drive sizes for each gate, and the delay, powerand area characteristics of each gate.
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If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? The book shows how to write SystemVerilog models at the Register Transfer Level RTL that simulate and synthesize correctly, with a focus on proper coding styles and best practices. SystemVerilog is the latest generation of the original Verilog language, and adds many important capabilities to efficiently and more accurately model increasingly complex designs.
This book is for engineers who already know, or who are learning, digital design engineering. The book does not present digital design theory; it shows how to apply that theory to write RTL models that simulate and synthesize correctly. It is time to leave behind the stepping-stones and to teach a single consistent and concise language in a single book, and maybe not even refer to the old ways at all! If you are a designer of digital systems, or a verification engineer searching for bugs in these designs, then SystemVerilog will provide you with significant benefits, and this book is a great place to learn the design aspects of SystemVerilog.
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Chris Spear. Pong P. Digital Design and Computer Architecture. Simon Monk. What digital items do customers buy after viewing this item? The UVM Primer. Ray Salemi. About the Author Stuart Sutherland provides expert SystemVerilog training workshops and consulting services. Stuart has more than 30 years of experience with Verilog and SystemVerilog. Stuart has authored and co-authored numerous papers on these languages available at www. Customer reviews.
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Please try again later. Verified Purchase. While the title of this book says it's "for Simulation and Synthesis", the emphasis in the text is clearly on the latter. Sutherland who tragically passed away suddenly in has long advocated for the synthesis features of SystemVerilog in his conference papers and training seminars. This is more than just an update to Mr. Sutherland's earlier book, "SystemVerilog for Design".You will learn how to: Read in hierarchical block-level RTL designs; Load libraries, technology data and floorplan constraints; Apply and verify constraints for complex design timing; Use timing- and congestion-focused DC Ultra and DC NXT optimization features, which includes the SPG flow, to achieve post-placement timing closure and acceptable congestion; Analyze synthesis results for timing and congestion; Generate output data required by physical design or layout tools.
You will verify the logic equivalence of synthesis transformations such as Datapath optimizations and Register Retiming to that of an RTL design using Formality.G scale flex track
The course includes labs to reinforce and practice key topics discussed in lecture. Optionally, you will verify the logic equivalence of synthesis transformations such as datapath optimizations and register retiming to that of an RTL design using Formality. All the covered commands and flows are printed separately in a page Job Aid, which you can refer to back at work.
Prior experience with Design Compiler is not needed. An understanding of basic digital ASIC design concepts is assumed, including combinational and sequential logic functionality, and setup and hold timing. Cloud Synopsys in the Cloud. Community Community Overview. Analog IP Data Converters.
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All Synopsys. Prerequisites Prior experience with Design Compiler is not needed. Register Now eLearning Available.RTL Architect is the latest addition to the digital design family of products.
It is a predictive RTL design closure solution that provides early predictions of the impact RTL changes will have on implementability, power, performance, area and other quality metrics. The Design Compiler family of products maximizes productivity with its complete solution for RTL synthesis and test. Design Compiler NXT uses advanced optimizations and shared technology with IC Compiler II place-and-route to deliver best-in-class quality-of-results at process nodes down to 5nm and beyond.
The Design Compiler family is also tightly linked to the Synopsys TestMAX family of test products for the fastest, most cost-effective path to high-quality manufacturing tests and working silicon; Power Compilerfor low-power synthesis and optimization; Formality for equivalence checking; and the DesignWare Library with its unequalled variety of synthesizable IP.
Fusion Compiler is built on a single, highly-scalable data-model and comprises common engines for timing, extraction, synthesis, placement, legalization, clock-topology-creation and routing. Functional Safety Implementation Goes Mainstream. Full-flow Design Platform based on Fusion Technology. Cloud Synopsys in the Cloud. Community Community Overview. Analog IP Data Converters.
Contact Us. Watch Videos Webinars. Community embARC. Polaris Platform Comprehensive application security from developer to deployment. Managed Services On-demand resources and expertise to augment and accelerate application security. Professional Services Strategy and programs that address security before, during and after development.
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All Synopsys. RTL Design and Synthesis. Design Compiler NXT. RTL Architect. DC Ultra. Fusion Compiler. Design Compiler Graphical. Power Compiler. Success Story.
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